Publications until 2000

Drachman, D.B., K.V. Toyka, E. Myer (1975)
Prednisone in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Lancet II: 1409-1412

Toyka, K.V., D.B. Drachman, A. Pestronk et al. (1975)
Myasthenia gravis: passive transfer from man to mouse.
Science 190: 397-399

Toyka, K.V., D.B. Drachman, D.E. Griffin et al. (1977)
Myasthenia gravis: study of humoral immune mechanisms by passive transfer to mice.
N. Engl. J. Med. 296: 125-131

Toyka, K.V., B. Löwenadler, K. Heininger, U.A. Besinger, K.L. Birnberger, A. Fateh-Moghadam, E. Heilbronn (1980)
Passively transferred myasthenia gravis: protection of mouse endplates by Fab fragments from human myasthenic IgG.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 43: 836-842

Besinger, U.A., K.V. Toyka, A.P. Anzil et al (1981)
Myeloma neuropathy: passive transfer from man to mouse.
Science 213: 1027-1030

Toyka, K.V., R. Augspach, H. Wiethölter et al (1982)
Plasma exchange in chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy: evidence suggestive of a pathogenic humoral factor.
Muscle Nerve 5: 479-484

Besinger, U.A., K.V. Toyka, M. Hömberg et al (1983)
Myasthenia gravis: long-term correlation of binding and bungarotoxin blocking antibodies against acetylcholine receptors with changes in disease severity.
Neurology (N.Y.) 33: 1316-1321

Hohlfeld, R., K.V. Toyka. K. Heininger et al (1984)
Autoimmune human T lymphocytes specific for acetylcholine receptor.
Nature 310: 244-246

Heininger, K., U.G. Liebert, K.V. Toyka, F. Haneveld et al (1984)
Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy: Reduction of nerve conduction velocities in monkeys by systemic passive transfer of immunoglobulin G.
J. Neurol. Sci. 66: 1-14

Hohlfeld, R., K.V. Toyka, K. Heininger, B. Gerhold (1985)
Myasthenia gravis: Reactivation of clinical disease and of autoimmune factors after discontinuation of azathioprine.
Ann. Neurol. 17: 238-242

Stoll, G., G. Schwendemann, K. Heininger, A. Steck, K.V. Toyka (1985)
Human monoclonal anti-MAG antibody and anti-Leu 7 recognize shared antigenic determinants in peripheral nerve and spinal cord.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 48: 635-638

Hartung, H.-P., K. Wolters, K.V. Toyka (1986)
Substance P: Binding properties and studies on cellular responses in guinea pig macrophages.
J. Immunol. 136: 3856-3863

Heininger, K., M. Hendricks, K.V. Toyka (1985)
Myasthenia gravis: A new semiselective procedure to remove acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies from plasma.
Plasma Therapy 6: 771-775

Seitz, R.J., K. Heininger, G. Schwendemann, K.V. Toyka (1986)
Application of the avidin-biotin-system for post-embedding cytochemical demonstration of a biotin-labelled tracer.
J. Cytochem. Histochem. 34: 547-549

Hohlfeld, R., I. Kalies, B. Kohleisen, K. Heininger, B. Conti-Tronconi, K.V. Toyka (1986)
Myasthenia gravis: stimulation of anti-receptor autoantibodies by autoreactive T-cell lines.
Neurology 36: 618-621

Hartung, H.-P., C. Schwenke, D. Bitter-Suermann, K.V. Toyka (1987)
Guillain-Barre' Syndrome: activated complement components C3a and C5a in cerebrospinal fluid.
Neurology 37: 1006-1009

Hohlfeld, R., K.V. Toyka, S. Tzartos, W. Carson, B. Conti-Tronconi (1987)
Epitopes on the alpha-subunit of torpedos acetylcholine receptor stimulate human T lymphocytes in myasthenia gravis.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 84: 5379-5383

Hartung, H.-P., K.V. Toyka (1987)
Phorbol diester TPA elicits prostaglandin E release from cultured rat astrocytes.
Brain Res. 417: 347-349

Hartung, H.-P., B. Schäfer, K. Heininger, K.V. Toyka (1988)
Suppression of experimental autoimmune neuritis by the oxygen radical scavengers superoxide dismutase and catalase.
Ann. Neurol. 23: 453-460

Hartung, H.-P., B. Schäfer, G. Stoll, K. Heininger, K.V. Toyka (1988)
The role of macrophages and eicosanoids in the pathogenesis of experimental allergic neuritis. Serial clinical, electrophysiological, and morphological observations.
Brain 111: 1039-1059

Hohlfeld, R., K.V. Toyka, L.L. Miner, S.L. Walgrave, B. Conti-Tronconi (1988)
Amphipathic segment of the nicotinic receptor alpha-subunit contains epitopes recognized by T-lymphocytes in myasthenia gravis.
J. Clin. Invest. 81: 657-660

Schmidt, B., G. Stoll, B. Schäfer, H.-P. Hartung, K.V. Toyka (1990)
Macrophages but not Schwann cells express Ia antigen in experimental autoimmune neuritis.
Ann. Neurol. 28: 70-77

Hartung, H.-P., B. Schäfer, P.H. van der Meide, W. Fierz, K. Heininger, K.V. Toyka (1990)
The role of interferon-gamma in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system.
Ann. Neurol. 27:247-257

Hartung, H.-P., K. Reiners, B. Schmidt, G. Stoll, and K.V. Toyka (1991)
Serum interleukin-2 concentrations in Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Comparison with other neurologicaldiseases of presumed immunopathogenesis.
Ann. Neurol. 30: 48-53

Stoll, G., B. Schmidt, S. Jander, K.V. Toyka, H.-P. Hartung (1991)
Presence of the terminal complement complex (C5b-9) precedes myelin degradation in acute demyelination in the peripheral nervous system of the rat.
Ann. Neurol. 30: 147-155

Zielasek, Z., M. Tausch, K.V. Toyka, H.-P.Hartung (1992)
Production of nitrite by neonatal rat microglial cells./brain macrophages.
Cellular Immunol. 141: 111-120

Jung, S., H.J. Schlüsener, K. V. Toyka, H.-P. Hartung (1993)
Modulation of EAE by vaccination with T cell receptor peptides: Vß8 T cell receptor peptide-specific CD4+ lymphocytes lack direct immunoregulatory activity.
J. Neuroimmunol. 45: 15 - 22

Archelos, J.J., S. Jung, M. Mäurer, H. Lassmann, M. Schmied, M. Miyasaka, K.V. Toyka und H.-P. Hartung (1993)
Inhibition of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by antibodies to the intercellular adhesion molecule-1.
Ann. Neurol. 34: 145 - 154

Pette, M., U. G. Liebert, U. Göbel, H. Grosse-Wilde, H.-P. Hartung, K. V. Toyka (1993)
Measles virus-directed responses of CD4+ T lymphocytes in MS patients and halthy controls.
Neurology 43: 2019 - 2024

Hartung, H.-P., M. Michels, K. Reiners, P. Seeldrayers, J. J. Archelos, K. V. Toyka (1993)
Soluble ICAM-1 serum levels in multiple sclerosis and viral encephalitis.
Neurology 43: 2331 - 2335

Gold, R., M. Schmied, G. Giegerich, H. Breitschopf, H.-P. Hartung, K.V. Toyka, H. Lassmann (1994)
Differentiation between cellular apoptosis and necrosis by the combined use of in situ tailing and nick translation techniques.
Lab.Invest. 71:219-225

Zettl, U. K., R. Gold, H.-P. Hartung, K. V. Toyka (1994)
Apoptotic cell death of T-lymphocytes in experimental autoimmune neuritis.
Neurosci. Lett. 176:75 - 79

Kiefer, R., M. L. Supier, K. V. Toyka, W. J. Streit (1994)
In situ detection of transforming growth factor-ß mRNA in experimental rat glioma and reactive glial cells
Neurosci. Lett., 166: 161 - 164

Archelos, J. J., M. Mäurer, S. Jung, M. Miyasaka, T. Tamatani, K. V. Toyka, H.-P. Hartung (1994)
Inhibition of experimental autoimmune neuritis by an antibody to the lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1
Lab.Invest. 70,:667 - 675

Harvey, G. K., K. V. Toyka, H.-P. Hartung (1994)
The effects of mast cell degranulation on blood-nerve barrier permeability and nerve conduction in vivo.
J. Neurol. Sci. 125:102-109

Müller, B., K. Adelt, H. Reichmann, K.V. Toyka (1994)
Atraumatic needle reduces post-lumbar puncture syndrome
J. Neurol. 241:376 - 380

Gold, R., G. Giegerich, H.-P. Hartung, K.V. Toyka (1995)
T-cell receptor (TCR) usage and apoptosis in Lewis rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE): Vß8.2 positive T cells are not essential for induction and course of disease.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 92: 5850 - 5854

Morrissey, S., H. Stodal, U. Zettl, C. Simonis, S. Jung, R. Kiefer, H. Lassmann, H.-P. Hartung, A Haase, K.V. Toyka (1996)
In vivo MRI and ist histological cocorrelates in acute adoptive transfer experimental allergic neuritis: quantification of inflammation and oedema.
Brain 119: 239 - 248

Hartung, H.-P., J.J. Archelos, J. Zielasek, R. Gold, M. Koltzenburg, K. Reiners, K.V. Toyka (1995)
Circulating adhesion molecules and cytokines in inflammatory demyelination.
Neurology 45: 22 - 32

Harvey, G.K., R. Gold, H.-P. Hartung, K.V. Toyka (1995)
Nonneural-specific T lymphocytes orchestrate inflammatory peripheral neuropathy
Brain 118: 1263 - 1272

Hartung, H.-P., K. Reiners, J.J. Archelos, J. Zielasek, F. Heidenreich, K. Pflughaupt and K.V. Toyka (1995)
Circulating adhesion molecules and TNF receptor (60 kDa) in multiple sclerosis: Correlation with MRI and comparison with viral encephalitis.
Ann. Neurol. 38: 186 - 193

Adelkofer, K., R. Martini, A. Aguzzi, J. Zielasek, K.V. Toyka, U. Suter (1995)
Hypermyelination and demyelinating peripheral neuropathy in Pmp22-deficient mice
Nature Genetics 11: 274 - 280 (with Editorial)

Martini, R., J. Zielasek, K.V. Toyka, K. P. Giese, M. Schachner (1995)
Protein zero (PO)-deficient mice show myelin degeneration in peripheral nerves characteristic of inherited human neuropathies.
Nature Genetics 11: 281 - 285 (with Editorial)

Jung. S., K.V. Toyka, H.-P. Hartung (1995)
Suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats by antibodies against CD2 Eur. J. Immunol. 25: 1391 - 1398

Buchwald, B. A. Weishaupt, K.V. Toyka, J. Dudel (1995)
Immunoglobulin G from a patient with Miller-Fisher syndrome rapidly and reversibly depresses evoked quantal release at the neuromuscular junction of mice
Neurosci. Lett. 201: 263 - 166

Kiefer, R., K. Funa, T. Schweitzer, S. Jung, O. Bourde, K. V. Toyka, H.-P. Hartung (1996)
Transforming growth factor-b 1 in experimental autoimmune neuritis
Am. J. Pathol. 148: 211 - 223

Jung, S., K.V. Toyka, H.-P., Hartung (1996)
T cell directed immunotherapy of inflammatory demyelination in the peripheral nervous system
Potent suppression of the effector phase of experimental autoimmune neuritis by anti-CD2 antibodies.
Brain 119: 1079 - 1090

Zielasek, J., R. Martini, K.V. Toyka (1996)
Functional abnormalities in P0-deficient mice resemble human hereditary neuropathies linked to P0 gene mutations. Muscle Nerve 19: 946 - 952

Dittrich, F., G. Ochs, A. Große-Wilde, U. Berweiler, Q. Yan, J.A. Miller, K.V. Toyka, M. Sendtner (1996)
Pharmacokinetics of intrathecally applied BDNF and effects on spinal motoneurons.
Exp. Neurology 141: 225 - 239

Morrissey, S. P., R. Deichmann, J. Syha, C. Simonis, U. Zettl, J. J. Archelos, S. Jung, H. Stodal, H. Lassmann, K. V. Toyka (1996)
Partial inhibition of AT-EAE by an antibody to ICAM-1: clinico-histological and MRI studies
J. Neuroimmunol. 69: 85 - 93

Hughes RAC, Swan AV, Cornblath DR, Hartung, H.-P., K. V. Toyka, V. Bril et al (1997)
Plasma exchange / Sandoglobulin Guillain-Barré Syndrome Trial Group
Randomised trial of plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin, and combined treatments in Guillain-Barré Syndrome
Lancet 349: 225 - 230

Naumann, M., P. Flachenecker, E. B. Bröcker, K. V. Toyka, K. Reiners (1997)
Botulinum toxin for palmar hyperhidrosis
Lancet 349: 252 (Research Letter)

Bergmann, I., J. V. Priestley, S. B. McMahon, E. B. Bröcker, K. V. Toyka, M. Koltzenburg (1997)
Analysis of cutaneous sensory neurons in transgenic mice lacking the low affinity neurotrophin receptor p75
Eur. J. Neurosci 9:18 - 28

Weishaupt, A., R. Gold, S. Gaupp, G. Giegerich, H.-P. Hartung, K. V. Toyka (1997)
Antigen therapy eliminates T cell inflammation by apoptosis: effective treatment of experimental autoimmune neuritis with recombinant myelin protein P2 Proc.
Natl. Acad. Sci USA 94: 1338 - 1343

Buchwald, B., A. Weishaupt, K. V. Toyka, J. Dudel (1998)
Pre- and postsynaptic blockade of synaptic transmission by Miller-Fisher syndrome IgG at mouse motor nerve terminals.
Eur. J. Neurosci. 10: 281 - 290

Anzini, P., D. H.-H. Neuberg, M. Schachner, E. Nelles, K. Willecke, J. Zielasek, K. V. Toyka, U. Suter, R. Martini (1997)
Structural abnormalities and deficient maintenance of peripheral nerve myelin in mice lacking the gap junction -proteinconnexin 32
J. Neuroscience 17: 4545 - 4551

Schrank, B., R. Götz, J. M. Gunnersen, J. M. Ure, K. V. Toyka, A. G. Smith, M. Sendtner (1997)
Inactivation of the survival motor neuron gene, a candidate gene for human spinal muscular atrophy, leads to massive cell death in early mouse embryos.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 9920 - 9925

Naumann, M., M. Zellner, K. V. Toyka, K. Reiners (1998)
Treatment of gustatory sweating with botulinum toxin
Ann. Neurol. 42: 973 - 975

Kiefer, R., B. Kieseier, W. Brück, H.-P. Hartung, K. V. Toyka (1998)
Macrophage differentiation antigens in acute and chronic autoimmune polyneuropathies
Brain 121: 469 - 479

Buchwald, B., K. V. Toyka, J. Zielasek, A. Weishaupt, S. Schweiger, J. Dudel (1998)
Neuromuscular blockade by IgG antibodies from patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome: a macro-patch-clamp study
Ann. Neurol. 121: 1257 - 1266

Enders, U., R. Lobb, R. B. Pepinsky, H.-P. Hartung, K. V. Toyka, R. Gold (1998)
The role of the very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) and ist counterligand vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) of the Lewis rat
Brain 121: 1257 - 1266

Carrol, P., G. R. Lewin, M. Koltzenburg, K. V. Toyka, H. Thoenen (1998)
A role for BDNF in mechanosensation Nature Neurosci. 1: 42 - 46

Naumann, M., K. V. Toyka, B. Mansouri Taleghani, J. Ahmadpour, K. Reiners, H. Bigalke (1998)
Depletion of neutralising antibodies resensitises a secondary non-responder to botulinum A
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 65: 924 - 927

Hadden, R. D. M., D. R. Cornblath, R. A. C. Hughes, J. Zielasek, H.-P. Hartung, K. V. Toyka, A. V. Swan (1998)
Electrophysiological classification of Guillain-Barré Syndrome: Clinical associations and outcome
Ann. Neurol. 780 - 787